Esta é a trigésima sexta semana do Roteiro de Estudos para Aprender Inglês Sozinho, é importante que as semanas sejam seguidas a risca para que o método funcione com sucesso, e que você alcance o seu potencial.
Caso você esteja chegando agora, acesse a primeira semana através deste link para começar essa jornada com o pé direito.
Se perdeu o roteiro da semana 35ª é só acessar este link.
Roteiro de Estudos – 36ª Semana
Desde a 31ª semana, o nosso roteiro ganhou uma cara um pouco diferente e mais arrojada. Passamos a trabalhar com um formato que tende a focar menos na parte gramatical e nas regras, e olha mais para a vivência do inglês, ou seja, busca mais a expansão do vocabulário e a compreensão de textos e atividades mais complexas, tanto na leitura e na escrita como no entendimento do que se é ouvido.
Para que você possa alcançar a fluência ou proficiência no língua inglesa, principalmente a partir desta etapa mais avançada, é importante ter em mente não apenas o conteúdo já passado, que será reforçado agora por meio das atividades, mas também e principalmente se empenhando em manter uma frequência de escrita e treino de listening que te ajude a realmente evoluir na linguagem. Pois, sem o uso constante nesta fase do aprendizado as metas desejadas se tornaram cada vez mais difíceis de ser alcançadas. Isso é natural em qualquer língua, até mesmo no português que, se não é constantemente utilizado em sua forma correta pode se tornar defasado.
Caso você precise repassar a explicação de cada etapa deste novo roteiro, busque voltar no roteiro da 31ª semana e ler o passo a passo completo.
Além dessas dicas, atente-se para o fato de que a sua frequência de estudos é essencial para o aprendizado e que cumprir os exercícios propostos é importantíssimo para o desenvolvimento e evolução deste roteiro. Busque também manter conversas ou até mesmo ler seus próprios textos em voz alta e gravá-los para ouvir mais tarde, faça qualquer tipo de atividade que envolva a conversa e a oratória. Isso é uma peça-chave no caminho da fluência em qualquer língua. Aproveite sua evolução no listening para perceber os próprios erros e corrigí-los, assim, você vai gravá-los definitivamente.
Leitura e Interpretação – Elections
15 Facts About Elections Around the World
Democracy is not a one-size-fits-all endeavor—and neither is its essential mechanism, the election. Read on to learn more about how people around the world—and how some people who are currently out of this world—perform their essential civic duty when Election Day rolls around.
IN MOST PLACES, ELECTIONS ARE HELD ON SUNDAYS.
Voters in the U.S. may head to the polls on Tuesdays, but the rest of the world prefers to save its votes for Sunday. Interestingly, countries in which English is the primary language tend to be the exception to this rule; in Canada, citizens vote on Mondays, while Brits vote on Thursdays, and Australians and New Zealanders on Saturdays.
The American vote wasn’t always limited to Tuesdays by law; instead, it’s a holdover from the 19th century, when farmers were often forced to travel long distances to their polling stations, and needed enough time to make it back home in time for market day on Wednesday.
INDIA IS SO HUGE, ITS ELECTIONS CAN TAKE WEEKS.
India is home to more than 800 million eligible voters, which makes it the world’s largest democracy. In order to accommodate an electorate of that size, the government holds elections over the course of weeks, or even months. The last major general election in 2014, in which Indians voted for the 543 members of parliament, took place on nine separate days over five weeks.
SWEDISH AND FRENCH VOTERS ARE AUTOMATICALLY REGISTERED.
People in France and Sweden don’t need to worry about making time to register ahead of Election Day. The government automatically registers voters when they’re eligible—in France, that’s as soon as people turn 18. Sweden relies on tax registries to create lists of eligible citizens.
VOTING IS COMPULSORY IN AUSTRALIA.
Every Australian over 18 is required by law to register to vote and to participate in federal elections. Anyone who doesn’t show up on Election Day is fined AU$20 (around $15). Failure to pay that fine results in even steeper penalties—up to AU$180—and can result in a criminal charge.
KIDS AS YOUNG AS 16 CAN ROCK THE VOTE IN BRAZIL.
Since 1988, Brazilian citizens have had the right to vote at age 16. (Voting is required for almost everyone between the ages of 18 and 69, and anyone who doesn’t vote is subject to a fine.) Sixteen and 17-year-olds are also eligible to vote in Austria, Nicaragua, and Argentina, and 17-year-olds can cast votes in Indonesia and Sudan. Select states in Germany have given 16-year-olds the vote in local elections, and in 2014, for the first time ever, Scottish teens aged 16 and 17 were allowed to vote on a referendum.
Studies of elections in which 16- and 17-year-olds can participate have shown that giving young people the ability to vote may translate into a more engaged citizenry as those voters grow older. What’s more, teens who choose to participate in elections are often as well informed about the candidates and the issues as their older counterparts.
IN ESTONIA, YOU CAN CAST YOUR VOTE ONLINE.
Since 2005, Estonians have had the ability to vote online instead of waiting in line at their local polling stations. Although in-person voting is still more popular, in 2015, more than 30 percent of Estonian voters took advantage of the online voting system. The Estonian system is workable because every citizen receives a scannable ID card and PIN, which he or she can use to fulfill a number of civic responsibilities, from filing taxes to paying library fines. (Although an Estonian’s ID card and PIN are used to confirm his or her identity on Election Day, the vote itself is encrypted, rendering it anonymous.)
VOTER TURNOUT IN THE U.S. IS EXTREMELY LOW COMPARED TO OTHER DEVELOPED COUNTRIES.
According to a 2016 report about voter turnout in developed countries, just 53.6 percent of Americans performed their civic duty during the 2012 election cycle, which places the U.S. 31st out of 35 OECD nations. By contrast, Belgium saw the highest percentage of eligible voters turn out for its 2014 election; approximately 87.2 percent of Belgian citizens cast their votes.
IN CHILE, MEN AND WOMEN VOTED SEPARATELY UNTIL 2012.
Beginning in 1930—when women were first given the right to vote in local elections in Chile—men and women headed to separate polling locations. That year, a separate registry was created to accommodate newly-registered female voters, who were still prohibited from voting in national elections. The custom of separating men and women on election day persisted even after suffrage was granted in nationwide elections (and the country’s voting registries were combined) in 1949. Sixty-three years later, the government decided that voting doesn’t have to be segregated by gender; however, separate voting is still widely practiced.
YES, NORTH KOREA HOLDS ELECTIONS.
But they’re far from democratic. Although a whopping 99.7 percent of the electorate participated in the 2015 local elections, citizens didn’t have much of a choice when it came to choosing who they wanted to endorse. Everyone on the ballot was selected ahead of time by North Korea’s ruling party; to vote, North Koreans simply had to drop a printout of the names in a box to indicate their support. A separate box was present at polling locations, which voters could use to register their rejection of the given candidates. However, all of the candidates chosen received 100 percent of the vote—which means either no one opted to dissent, or if they did, their votes weren’t counted.
THE QUEEN OF ENGLAND IS ELIGIBLE TO VOTE.
There’s no law in the United Kingdom barring Queen Elizabeth II from participating in elections. But in order to appear as objective as possible, she generally does not. Ahead of Britain’s June referendum regarding its E.U. membership, a Buckingham Palace spokesman told reporters that, “It’s very clearly the convention here, that the queen is above politics … it’s a convention that the royal family do not vote in general elections, and this is very much an extension of that convention.”
GOVERNMENTS GET CREATIVE IN PLACES WHERE LITERACY IS AN ISSUE.
In Gambia, citizens cast their votes by dropping marbles into color-coded metal drums with pictures of the candidates. Each drum is rigged with a bell, which the marble, after it’s dropped in, dings. (If the bell rings more than once, poll workers know someone has broken the rules.)
PUNDITS IN NEW ZEALAND KEEP MUM ON ELECTION DAY.
That’s because media (or social media) coverage of anything that could influence the outcome is illegal before 7 p.m. on Election Day. According to one report, “Talking heads on television can’t mention something as mundane as a candidate’s attire, much less who might win. Political parties are even directed by authorities to ‘unpublish their pages.’” Anyone in violation of the restriction on Election Day chatter faces a fine of up to NZ$20,000 (around $14,000).
ASTRONAUTS CAN VOTE.
Astronauts aboard the International Space Station have had the ability to vote since 1997, when Texas lawmakers passed a measure that allowed secure ballots to be sent to space by Mission Control in Houston, Texas. Once astronauts make their selections, their ballots—PDFs of the paper ballots they’d receive in the mail—are beamed back down to Earth, where clerks open the encoded documents and submit a hard copy of the astronaut’s ballot to be counted.
LIECHTENSTEIN VOTERS WEIGH IN ON CITIZENSHIP.
In the tiny European country of Liechtenstein (population: 37,000) citizens vote for politicians, referendums—and whether or not to grant citizenship to those who have applied after residing in the principality for 10 years or more.
ONE ECUADORIAN ELECTION GOT OFF ON THE WRONG FOOT.
The victor in a 1967 mayoral election in Ecuador: a popular brand of foot powder. In the days leading up to the election, the company ran election-themed ads, suggesting consumers vote for the powder “if they want well-being and hygiene.” Spoiler alert: The foot powder won, thanks to the large volume of write-in votes it received.
Confira o artigo completo aqui.
Responda às perguntas a seguir:
- Did you vote in the last elections?
- Why do the elections in some countries like India can take many days? How different is it in Brazil and for which reasons?
- What do you think about online voting? Do you believe it would work in Brazil?
- To which cases are elections applicable in North Korea?
- How do astronauts vote?
- Which fact was your favorite or the most interesting?
Agora, busque escrever um texto de pelo menos uma página sobre o que você conhece sobre as eleições no seu país. Você pode descrever como é o sistema eleitoral, quando você começou a votar ou como foi a última eleição em que você participou.
Listening e Compreensão – The American Electoral System
Para treinar seu listening e sua compreensão no contexto apresentado, assista o vídeo com atenção e se necessário mais de uma vez ou pausando a cada etapa. Depois, tente responder às questões apresentadas de acordo com o que foi dito no vídeo.
Caso fique muito difícil de entender, busque ativar closed captions sempre que possível. Mas perceba que os closed captions do Youtube nem sempre são 100% confiáveis. Outra dica é, nunca ative legendas em português, isso pode atrasar seu aprendizado.
No vídeo desta semana vamos nos manter no tema do texto e conhecer um pouco mais sobre como as eleições funcionam nos Estados Unidos da América:
Responda às perguntas abaixo:
- What are the main reasons why elections are held?
- How does the constitution set up the elections?
- Who has the power to control the elections?
- In what consists the Plurarity Rule?
- Why is this rule applicable and still used?
- Why does the American voting system makes them more likely to have only 2 Parties?
Sinta-se à vontade para escrever sobre os partidos políticos no Brasil e, agora que você aprendeu um pouco mais sobre a política americana, comparar como os dois sistemas funcionam.
Cultura e Diversidade – Movie: The Iron Lady
The Iron Lady is a 2011 British-French biographical drama film based on the life and career of Margaret Thatcher (1925–2013), a British stateswoman and politician who was the first ever female and longest-serving Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of the 20th century. The film was directed by Phyllida Lloyd. Thatcher is portrayed primarily by Meryl Streep and, in her formative and early political years, by Alexandra Roach. Thatcher’s husband, Denis Thatcher, is portrayed by Jim Broadbent, and by Harry Lloyd as the younger Denis. Thatcher’s longest-serving cabinet member and eventual deputy, Geoffrey Howe, is portrayed by Anthony Head.
While the film was met with mixed reviews, Streep’s performance was widely acclaimed, and considered to be one of the greatest of her career. She received her 17th Oscar nomination for her portrayal and ultimately won the award, 29 years after her first Best Actress win. She also earned her third Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Drama award (her eighth Golden Globe Award win overall), and her second BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role. The film also won the Academy Award for Best Makeup and the BAFTA Award for Best Makeup and Hair.
The film was loosely based on John Campbell’s biography The Iron Lady: Margaret Thatcher, from Grocer’s Daughter to Prime Minister.
Assista ao vídeo abaixo, leia o texto a seguir e responda às perguntas:
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (née Roberts; 13 October 1925 – 8 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century and the first woman to have been appointed. A Soviet journalist dubbed her the “Iron Lady”, a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style. As Prime Minister, she implemented policies that have come to be known as Thatcherism.
A research chemist at Somerville College, Oxford before becoming a barrister, Thatcher was elected Member of Parliament for Finchley in 1959. Edward Heath appointed her Secretary of State for Education and Science in his Conservative government. In 1975, Thatcher defeated Heath in the Conservative Party leadership election to become Leader of the Opposition and became the first woman to lead a major political party in the United Kingdom. She became Prime Minister after winning the 1979 general election.
On moving into 10 Downing Street, Thatcher introduced a series of political and economic initiatives intended to reverse high unemployment and Britain’s struggles in the wake of the Winter of Discontent and an ongoing recession.[nb 1] Her political philosophy and economic policies emphasised deregulation (particularly of the financial sector), flexible labour markets, the privatisation of state-owned companies, and reducing the power and influence of trade unions. Thatcher’s popularity during her first years in office waned amid recession and increasing unemployment, until victory in the 1982 Falklands War and the recovering economy brought a resurgence of support, resulting in her decisive re-election in 1983. She survived an assassination attempt in 1984.
Thatcher was re-elected for a third term in 1987. During this period her support for the Community Charge (referred to as the “poll tax”) was widely unpopular, and her views on the European Community were not shared by others in her Cabinet. She resigned as Prime Minister and party leader in November 1990, after Michael Heseltine launched a challenge to her leadership. After retiring from the Commons in 1992, she was given a life peerage as Baroness Thatcher (of Kesteven in the County of Lincolnshire) which entitled her to sit in the House of Lords. In 2013 she died of a stroke in London at the age of 87. Always a controversial figure, she has nonetheless been lauded as one of the greatest, most influential and widest-known politicians in British history, even as arguments over Thatcherism persist.
Responda às perguntas a seguir:
- Why do you think Thatcher’s victory was a big surprise?
- Which political beliefs did she have? Do you agree with them?
- How important was Thatcher’s life and work to the women around the world?
- What are Margaret’s characteristics you can see in the trailer?
- Do you share any of this characteristics or would like to?
- Have you ever watched this movie or would be interested into?
Chegamos ao fim da trigésima sexta semana do Roteiro de Estudos Para Aprender Inglês Sozinho. Utilize os vídeos, textos e exercícios de forma alternada, começando pelo texto repetido por muitas vezes segundo a orientação, e faça cada sessão individualmente para que você possa compreender melhor o conteúdo apresentado. Lembre-se de cumprir as etapas aos poucos, já que você tem uma semana para fechar este conteúdo, e repita quantas vezes forem necessárias.
Certifique-se também que você compreendeu o novo vocabulário apresentado nas diversas sessões e sinta-se livre para checar as palavras ou expressões desconhecidas. Entretanto, entenda que se você utilizar ferramentas de tradução para entender a totalidade dos textos, você estará gastando tempo e não aprendendo nada. Caso sinta essa necessidade, volte algumas lições até que se sinta preparada para avançar. O objetivo da tradução deve ser apenas para esclarecer vocábulos ou expressões pontualmente.
Você também pode utilizar outros recursos para complementar os estudos, como livros de exercício e séries de aprendizado. Podemos encontrar este tipo de conteúdo no Youtube, como por exemplo a série Magic English da Disney, que busca ilustrar todo o conteúdo com personagens conhecidos dos desenhos, ou a coletânea da BBC Learning English disponível online. Também existem dicionários online, como o Cambridge ou o Word Reference, sites de exercícios, como o site de gramática da Oxford.
Pratique sempre que possível e acompanhe regularmente as semanas deste Roteiro de Estudos para que você possa estudar de forma mais correta e otimizar o seu aprendizado, acelerando o seu progresso. Lembre-se da importância de criar o hábito do inglês na mente, através de músicas e filmes sua mente possa se acostumar com a língua inglesa mesmo sem estar estudando efetivamente uma lição. Assim, tente criar a partir de agora uma “pequena Inglaterra” ou um “pequeno USA” na sua vida, usando tudo o que puder em inglês, inclusive coisas cotidianas como algumas expressões e redes sociais. Aproveite também para conversar sobre os assuntos vistos em aula, conte aos amigos ou família o que você aprendeu e tente utilizar não só a gramática como também o vocabulário sempre que possível.
Caso tenha ficado qualquer dúvida até esta etapa, sinta-se a vontade para revisar e repetir algumas aulas se considerar necessário. O importante é manter a frequência nos estudos para que o seu inglês possa evoluir e chegar a um novo patamar. Continue praticando!
Bons estudos e boa semana.