Esta é a quadragésima quarta semana do Roteiro de Estudos para Aprender Inglês Sozinho, é importante que as semanas sejam seguidas à risca para que o método funcione com sucesso, e que você alcance o seu potencial.
Caso você esteja chegando agora, acesse a primeira semana através deste link para começar essa jornada com o pé direito.
Se perdeu o roteiro da semana passada é só acessar este link.
Roteiro de Estudos – 44ª Semana
Desde a 31ª semana, o nosso roteiro ganhou uma cara um pouco diferente e mais arrojada. Passamos a trabalhar com um formato que tende a focar menos na parte gramatical e nas regras, e olha mais para a vivência do inglês, ou seja, busca mais a expansão do vocabulário e a compreensão de textos e atividades mais complexas, tanto na leitura e na escrita como no entendimento do que se é ouvido.
Para que você possa alcançar a fluência ou proficiência no língua inglesa, principalmente a partir desta etapa mais avançada, é importante ter em mente não apenas o conteúdo já passado, que será reforçado agora por meio das atividades, mas também e principalmente se empenhando em manter uma frequência de escrita e treino de listening que te ajude a realmente evoluir na linguagem. Pois, sem o uso constante nesta fase do aprendizado as metas desejadas se tornaram cada vez mais difíceis de ser alcançadas. Isso é natural em qualquer língua, até mesmo no português que, se não é constantemente utilizado em sua forma correta pode se tornar defasado.
Caso você precise repassar a explicação de cada etapa deste novo roteiro, busque voltar no roteiro da 31ª semana e ler o passo a passo completo.
Além dessas dicas, atente-se para o fato de que a sua frequência de estudos é essencial para o aprendizado e que cumprir os exercícios propostos é importantíssimo para o desenvolvimento e evolução deste roteiro. Busque também manter conversas ou até mesmo ler seus próprios textos em voz alta e gravá-los para ouvir mais tarde, faça qualquer tipo de atividade que envolva a conversa e a oratória. Isso é uma peça-chave no caminho da fluência em qualquer língua. Aproveite sua evolução no listening para perceber os próprios erros e corrigí-los, assim, você vai gravá-los definitivamente.
Leitura e Interpretação – Summertime
Ten reasons why summer is good for you
by ANGELA EPSTEIN and FELICITY WARNER, Daily Mail
After a seemingly endless winter, it looks like summer is finally on its way. But sunny skies and rising temperatures do more than make our environment a pleasant place. They also provide some very significant benefits to our health and wellbeing. Sunlight helps to regulate almost all our bodily processes, as well as acting as psychological encouragement to improve our lifestyle. Here, we bring you the top ten reasons why the summer is just what the doctor ordered.
1. Reduces chance of heart attacks
Research indicates that you are less likely to die of a heart attack in the summer than in the winter. In a study of almost 11,000 people who had heart attacks in the UK over a period of nine years, survival rate increased by 19 per cent if the attack occurred in the summer. Higher levels of Vitamin D – which is synthesised by sunlight – are also thought to play a protective part in those who suffer heart attacks. It’s also good news for those with high cholesterol. Ultraviolet light converts cholesterol to Vitamin D. Therefore, getting out in the sun is a good way to lower cholesterol levels, reducing the risk of heart disease and stroke. Research has also shown that sunlight plays a vital role in fighting many chronic illnesses. A deficiency of Vitamin D – essential for the absorption of calcium – is associated with diseases such as osteoporosis. Several studies have also shown that ovarian, breast and colon cancers are slowed by exposure to sunlight.
2. People eat more fruit
Rising temperatures and increased availability of summer fruits make it easier to fulfil the recommended quota of eating five portions of fruit and vegetables a day. Sarah Schenker, of the British Nutrition Foundation, says many summer berries such as blackcurrants and strawberries are high in Vitamin C and contain phytochemicals, whose antioxidant activity helps prevent chronic diseases such as cancer. They also boost the immune system and, because of their low calorie content, help with weight loss. Calorie intake in general is lower in the summer because increased body temperature makes us less likely to reach for the sugary and fatty comfort food we use in the winter to stave off the cold.
3. Relieves skin complaints
Controlled exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet rays can have a therapeutic effect on skin complaints such as acne, psoriasis and dermatitis. Dr Ian White, consultant dermatologist at St Thomas’s Hospital in London, says many skin disorders are caused by an over-sensitive immune system. UV rays reduce that sensitivity. It is better to walk around in daylight rather than sitting directly exposed to the sun for any length of time because sunburn remains a key factor in causing skin cancer. The therapeutic effects of the sun occur just below the level of turning skin red. Most fair skins can tolerate up to 15 minutes of direct exposure before the skin turns pink. After that, lotion with a sun protection factor of between 15 and 30 should be worn.
4. Increases agility
The summer is an excellent time to begin an exercise programme. Not only do summer clothes provide an incentive to get the body in shape, but the feel-good factor created by sunlight boosts our enthusiasm to begin a fitness regime. Exercise is not only the most effective way to burn up excess calories, but also improves the vital flow of oxygen to the brain, lowering stress levels and improving powers of concentration. Louise Brooks, regional director for health club chain LA Fitness, suggests aiming for 20 minutes of aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking or swimming, three times a week. The warm weather is also good news for those suffering from arthritis. Many people feel more agile and in less pain during the summer.
5. Increases our water consumption
Water is vital to thousands of chemical processes that take place in the body’s cells to enable it to function. These include promoting digestion, regulating body temperature, improving the health and vitality of our skin and flushing toxins from the body. In the summer months we are more inclined to drink the recommended two litres of water a day needed for optimum health. The more fluid your body loses the more you need to drink, so take regular sips of water throughout the day. Limit tea, coffee and cola drinks to three a day.
6. Reduces DVT risk
The warmer days of summer are good news for those at risk of thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Doctors say a spell of warm weather helps blood vessels enlarge, allowing blood to circulate better.
7. Helps migraine sufferers
Canadian doctors running trials testing the link between weather and migraines have concluded that clear, sunny and dry weather reduces attacks of migraine. However, if the weather turns muggy, watch out because the symptoms may return.
8. Effects on diabetes
Doctors have found that climate fluctuations can account for increased rates of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Statistics show this form of diabetes is less common in hot countries near the equator. One theory for this is that the amount of daylight may influence either insulin action or the cocktail of hormones that regulate insulin production. This seasonal effect seems to be most pronounced in IDDM patients in the age range of five to 15. Males seem more susceptible than females. People’s eating habits are different in the summer and winter. The types of foods, the total calories consumed and the timing of the meals all vary with the seasons. Most people, including diabetics, tend to eat extra fresh fruit when they become available in the summer. This has an important effect on their insulin levels.
9. Prevents hip fractures
A healthy dose of sunshine could prevent older women from fracturing their hips, according to researchers at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts.
They found that half of postmenopausal women admitted to the hospital with hip fractures had low levels of Vitamin D, which is boosted by sunlight. The risk of post-menopausal women developing hip fractures is thought to be equal to the combined risk of developing breast, ovarian and uterine cancer, and up to 24 percent of women can die in the first year after suffering a hip fracture. The research, published in The Journal Of The American Medical Association, suggests Vitamin D could be an important supplement for patients with weakened bones. The vitamin is also found in cheese, butter, margarine, cream, fortified milk, fish, oysters and fortified cereals.
10. Helps to regulate sleep disorders
Waking up to the sun and getting early-morning exposure to its light can help those suffering from sleep disorders such as insomnia. This is because sunlight helps the body’s internal biological clock reset itself. Sleep experts recommend exposure to an hour of sunlight between 7am and 9am each morning to help those who have problems getting to sleep at night. Make sure you also go to sleep in a room without light because darkness increases the production of the sleep-inducing chemical melatonin.
Confira o artigo completo aqui.
Responda às perguntas a seguir:
- Why the sun benefits the movements and the bones?
- What are the sleep benefits the sun bring with?
- How does the sun affects our daily diet?
- Which diseases can the sun avoid?
- In resume, why is the sun good for our health?
- Which health advantage of the summer you consider the best? And why?
- Do like summer? Why?
Agora, busque escrever um texto de pelo menos uma página sobre como você aproveita o verão. Conte se você viaja ou fica na sua cidade, se essa é uma estação do ano que te agrada ou não e que tipo de atividades você faz. Insira também um comentário sobre como você se sente e se você acredita que o verão faz bem à saúde.
Listening e Compreensão – The Football World Cup
Para treinar seu listening e sua compreensão no contexto apresentado, assista o vídeo com atenção e se necessário mais de uma vez ou pausando a cada etapa. Depois, tente responder às questões apresentadas de acordo com o que foi dito no vídeo.
Caso fique muito difícil de entender, busque ativar closed captions sempre que possível. Mas perceba que os closed captions do Youtube nem sempre são 100% confiáveis. Outra dica é, nunca ative legendas em português, isso pode atrasar seu aprendizado.
No vídeo desta semana vamos nos manter no tema do verão e falar sobre umas das comidinhas mais amadas em tempos quentes, o sorvete.
Ice Cream: A Brief History
Responda às perguntas abaixo:
- What are the origins of the ice cream?
- Why was ice cream mixed with soda for the first time?
- Which is the origin of the Sundae?
- How was the ice cream cone invented?
- Who invented the Good Humors Ice and how are they known today?
- When did Häagen-Dazs and Ben ‘n’ Jerry’s start?
- Do you know how much ice cream is consumed in the world every year? If not, search for it.
Sinta-se à vontade para escrever sobre o seu gosto para sorvete e sobre o que você acha que da quantidade de sorvete que é consumido no mundo.
Cultura e Diversidade – Music: Summer Nights
Grease is a 1978 American musical romantic comedy film based on the 1971 musical of the same name. Written by Bronte Woodard and directed by Randal Kleiser in his theatrical feature film debut, the film depicts the lives of two high school seniors: a bad boy (played by John Travolta) and a good girl (played by Olivia Newton-John) in the late 1950s. Grease was successful both critically and commercially. Its soundtrack album ended 1978 as the second-best selling album of the year in the United States, behind the soundtrack of the 1977 blockbuster Saturday Night Fever, and earned the film its lone Oscar nomination for “Hopelessly Devoted to You” (which lost the Academy Award for Best Original Song to Donna Summer’s “Last Dance” from Thank God It’s Friday at the 51st Academy Awards).
In the summer of 1958, greaser Danny Zuko and sweet Australian girl Sandy Olsson meet at the beach and fall in love. When the summer comes to an end, Sandy, whose family is returning to Australia, worries that they might never meet again, but Danny tells her that their love is “only the beginning.” At the beginning of the new school year at Rydell High School (“Grease”), Danny reunites with his fellow gang members, the T-Birds, of whom his best friend Kenickie, along with Doody, Sonny, and Putzie are members. Meanwhile, unbeknownst to Danny, Sandy arrives at school, with her family’s plans having changed, with her new friend Frenchy, a member of the Pink Ladies. Other Pink Ladies Rizzo, Marty, and Jan also arrive, excited to be seniors, as does Patty Simcox, a high-achieving cheerleader.
At lunch, Frenchy introduces Sandy to the other Pink Ladies while Danny and the T-Birds make fun of practicing football players, including the handsome Tom Chisum. Each group asks Danny and Sandy, respectively, about their summers and they each independently describe their romance without using the other’s name, with Sandy’s description far more innocent than Danny’s (“Summer Nights”).
Headed back to class, Sandy reveals that it was Danny Zuko she met, and Rizzo teases that perhaps she’ll meet him again.
At a pep rally before a football game, Sandy and Patty perform as cheerleaders; there, Sandy and Tom flirt. Kenickie arrives with a used car he plans on rebuilding so he can race it at Thunder Road, a popular street race spot; as he says this, Leo, a rival greaser, drives by in a menacing manner. Rizzo puts Sandy and Danny together, surprising both of them. Sandy is thrilled to see Danny, but he is obnoxious and indifferent, upsetting Sandy. Frenchy invites Sandy to a sleepover with the Pink Ladies to cheer her up.
Rizzo and the other girls pressure Sandy into smoking a cigarette and having a drink of wine at the sleepover. Frenchy reveals that she plans to drop out of Rydell to go to beauty school and in an effort to prove herself, tries to pierce Sandy’s ear, making Sandy sick. Rizzo makes fun of her innocent nature (“Look At Me, I’m Sandra Dee”) and leaves when the T-Birds arrive in Kenickie’s car. Rizzo tries to make Danny jealous by flirting with Kenickie, but Danny is unmoved and leaves. Kenickie leaves with Rizzo, stranding Putzie, Sonny, and Doody. Sandy laments over her feelings towards Danny, despite his earlier behavior (“Hopelessly Devoted to You”).
Kenickie and Rizzo, while in the midst of sex, are interrupted when Leo, along with his girlfriend Cha-Cha, deliberately crashes his own street racer into Kenickie’s and insults Rizzo. At the same time, Kenickie’s condom breaks.
The next day, the T-Birds look over Kenickie’s car, and although they are initially skeptical of its potential, Danny and Kenickie explain the modifications they could add to make it a hot-rodding sex machine (“Greased Lightnin'”). At the popular hangout The Frosty Palace, Danny, after brushing off an attempt by Patty to flirt with him, apologizes to Sandy for his behavior at the pep rally, but she rejects him. Danny approaches Coach Calhoun about playing a sport. After picking fights with the jocks in basketball, wrestling and baseball, Calhoun suggests cross-country running; Danny proves to be a successful runner, which impresses Sandy and angers Tom.
Danny takes Sandy to the Frosty Palace for a date; they are soon joined by the rest of the greasers, and Danny and Sandy quickly leave in discomfort. Putzie and Jan, in an awkward exchange, agree to pair off for the dance; Kenickie and Rizzo get into an argument and go their separate ways, while Sonny unsuccessfully tries to court Marty. After everyone else has left, Frenchy, whose hair has turned bright pink, tells a waitress she has dropped out of beauty school and is visited by a guardian angel who advises her to return to Rydell (“Beauty School Dropout”).
At the school dance, Leo and Cha-Cha show up as Rizzo’s and Kenickie’s respective dates. Vince Fontaine, who is hosting a live telecast of the dance, flirts with Marty. All of the students take part in a dance contest that descends into chaos (“Born to Hand Jive”). Danny and Sandy do well, but Sonny pulls Sandy off the dance floor, allowing Cha Cha to step in and win with Danny. During the last dance (“Blue Moon”), Sonny, Putzie, and Doody moon the national TV audience.
Danny apologizes to Sandy and tries to make it up to her by taking her to a drive-in movie theater. She’s unmoved by his pleas for forgiveness until he asks her to wear his ring, which she gleefully accepts. Danny then tries to make out with her, causing Sandy to angrily throw his ring at him and run off, leaving Danny distraught (“Sandy”). Meanwhile, Rizzo admits she may be pregnant to Marty and asks her to keep it a secret, but the story gets back to Kenickie, and he tells Rizzo he doesn’t run away from his mistakes. Rizzo tells Kenickie the baby isn’t his, which both relieves and upsets him.
The next day, the T-Birds have finished Kenickie’s car and he is eager to race it against Leo’s at Thunder Road. Sandy tells Rizzo she plans to watch the race and offers to help Rizzo despite the rumors about Rizzo’s character that have been spread around school. She thanks Sandy and muses to herself about how her sins are not as bad as they could be (“There Are Worse Things I Could Do”).
The T-Birds, Pink Ladies, and Scorpions gather for the race, with the winner receiving the loser’s car as a prize. Just before the race begins, Kenickie hits his head, and Danny takes the wheel. Despite Leo using bladed hub caps (in a sequence paying homage to Ben-Hur), Danny wins the race. Sandy watches from afar and concludes that she must change her approach to life if she wants to win over Danny, asking Frenchy for help (“Look At Me, I’m Sandra Dee (Reprise)”).
The gang celebrates graduation at a school carnival where Rizzo tells Kenickie she isn’t pregnant and they reunite. Danny arrives wearing a letterman’s sweater, to the other T-Birds’ dismay. Sandy shocks everyone when she arrives with a new, wilder hairstyle and wearing a revealing black outfit and leather jacket. In song, Danny and Sandy reaffirm their commitment to each other (“You’re the One That I Want”). As the film ends, the greasers promise to stay together after school ends (“We Go Together”) and Danny and Sandy depart in a red hot rod, which takes flight as they wave goodbye to their friends.
Assista ao vídeo abaixo e preencha as lacunas:
Grease – Summer Nights HD
By: Grease Cast
Summer loving had me a blast
Summer loving ____________ so fast
I met a girl crazy for me
Met a boy cute as can be
Summer days ___________ away to oh oh the summer nights
Tell me more, tell me more
Did you get very ____
Tell me more, tell me more
Like does he have a car?
She _______ by me she got a cramp
He ran by me got my suit damp
I saved her life she nearly drowned
He showed off ____________ around
Summer sun some things begun but oh oh the summer nights
Tell me more, tell me more
Was it love at _____________________?
Tell me more, tell me more
Did she put up a fight?
Took her ___________ in the arcade
We went strolling drank lemonade
We made out under the dock
We stayed out till 10 o’clock
Summer ________ don’t mean a thing but oh oh the summer nights.
Tell me more, tell me more
But you don’t gotta brag
Tell me more, tell me more
Cause he sounds like a _____
He got friendly holding my hand
She got friendly down in the sand
He was sweet just turned ____________
Well she was good you know what I mean
Summer _____ boy and girl meet but oh oh the summer nights.
Tell me more, tell me more
How much dough did he ________?
Tell me more, tell me more
Could she get me a friend?
It turned ________ that’s where it ends
So I told her we’d still be friends
Then we made our ________ ________ vow
Wonder what she’s doing now
Summer ________ ripped at the seams but oh those summer nights
Composers: Warren Casey / Jim Jacobs
Summer Nights Lyrics© Warner/Chappell Music, Inc
Chegamos ao fim da quadragésima quarta semana do Roteiro de Estudos Para Aprender Inglês Sozinho. Utilize os vídeos, textos e exercícios de forma alternada, começando pelo texto repetido por muitas vezes segundo a orientação, e faça cada sessão individualmente para que você possa compreender melhor o conteúdo apresentado. Lembre-se de cumprir as etapas aos poucos, já que você tem uma semana para fechar este conteúdo, e repita quantas vezes forem necessárias.
Certifique-se também que você compreendeu o novo vocabulário apresentado nas diversas sessões e sinta-se livre para checar as palavras ou expressões desconhecidas. Entretanto, entenda que se você utilizar ferramentas de tradução para entender a totalidade dos textos, você estará gastando tempo e não aprendendo nada. Caso sinta essa necessidade, volte algumas lições até que se sinta preparada para avançar. O objetivo da tradução deve ser apenas para esclarecer vocábulos ou expressões pontualmente.
Você também pode utilizar outros recursos para complementar os estudos, como livros de exercício e séries de aprendizado. Podemos encontrar este tipo de conteúdo no Youtube, como por exemplo a série Magic English da Disney, que busca ilustrar todo o conteúdo com personagens conhecidos dos desenhos, ou a coletânea da BBC Learning English disponível online. Também existem dicionários online, como o Cambridge ou o Word Reference, sites de exercícios, como o site de gramática da Oxford.
Pratique sempre que possível e acompanhe regularmente as semanas deste Roteiro de Estudos para que você possa estudar de forma mais correta e otimizar o seu aprendizado, acelerando o seu progresso. Lembre-se da importância de criar o hábito do inglês na mente, através de músicas e filmes sua mente possa se acostumar com a língua inglesa mesmo sem estar estudando efetivamente uma lição. Assim, tente criar a partir de agora uma “pequena Inglaterra” ou um “pequeno USA” na sua vida, usando tudo o que puder em inglês, inclusive coisas cotidianas como algumas expressões e redes sociais. Aproveite também para conversar sobre os assuntos vistos em aula, conte aos amigos ou família o que você aprendeu e tente utilizar não só a gramática como também o vocabulário sempre que possível.
Caso tenha ficado qualquer dúvida até esta etapa, sinta-se a vontade para revisar e repetir algumas aulas se considerar necessário. O importante é sempre manter a frequência nos estudos para que o seu inglês possa evoluir e chegar a um novo patamar. Continue praticando!
Bons estudos e boa semana.